Where is it Commonly Found?
TBPH is used in polyurethane foam in furniture and juvenile products, often as a replacement for pentaBDE (New Materials International 2003). TBPH is also marketed as a plasticizer for flexible PVC and for use in wire and cable insulation, film and sheeting, carpet backing, coated fabrics, wall coverings and adhesives (OEHHA 2008).
No toxicity information is available on TBPH alone; however, a mixture of TBB ad TBPH has low acute toxicity via oral and dermal exposure, but it is a slight eye and skin irritant and is a skin sensitizer (CIREEH, 2011). No animal studies are available for carcinogenicity, but mutagenicity tests in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli were negative. No information is available on the developmental and reproductive toxicity of the chemical. An animal study indicates that the compound is not neurotoxic, but affects the kidneys at very high doses. Based on its chemical structure and properties, TBPH has a high bioaccumulation potential, and contamination of surface waters may lead to significant uptake in the food web.
In 2004, the EPA Design for the Environment predicted reproductive, neurological, and developmental toxicity and persistent degradation products for TBPH. It has been found in dust, sewage sludge, and marine mammals, suggesting that the flame retardant may be migrating from products and bioaccumulating in animals (Shaw et al., 2010).
TBPH is structurally similar to 2-Ethylhexyl tetrabromobenzoate (TBB). Both TBB and TBPH are genotoxic in fish, causing significant DNA damage (increased DNA strand breaks from liver cells) in orally exposed fish (Bearr, Stapleton, and Mitchelmore, 2010). TBPH is a brominated analogue of di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (Stapleton et al., 2008), which is listed under Proposition 65 as known to cause cancer and reproductive and developmental toxicity (OEHHA 2008). Health effects are therefore suspected for TBPH.
Human health effects are suspected since TBPH is a brominated analogue of di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (Stapleton et al., 2008), which is listed under Proposition 65 as known to cause cancer and reproductive and developmental toxicity (OEHHA 2008).
How is it Categorized?
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) is most often found as a component of a major flame retardant mixture, which also includes 2-Ethylhexyl tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and isopropylated triaryl phosphate (PrTPP). This component, as well as PBDEs, can migrate from foam products into indoor dust. These semi-volatile indoor dust compounds can form thin films on walls and windows.
What are its Synonyms?
1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, 3,4,5,6-TETRABROMO-,
1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, 3,4,5,6-TETRABROMO-, 1,2-BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER
1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, 3,4,5,6-TETRABROMO-, BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER
1,2-BENZENEDICARBOXYLIC ACID, 3,4,5,6-TETRABROMO-BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER
FIREMASTER 550 COMPONENT
PHTHALIC ACID, 3,4,5,6-TETRABROMO-, BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER
PHTHALIC ACID, TETRABROMO, BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER
PHTHALIC ACID, TETRABROMO-, BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER
PHTHALIC ACID, TETRABROMO-, DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) ESTER