Flame Retardant References

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Abdallah et al. 2008. Hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor dust from Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Environ Sci Technol 42:459-464.
ACGIH. 2008. TLVs and BEIs, Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Cincinnati, OH. http://books.google.com/books/about/TLVs_and_BEIs.html?id=JGSxPQAACAAJ
Alaee, M.; Arias, P.; Sjödin, A.; Bergman, Å. 2003. An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and their applications, changes in their use pattern in different countries/regions over time and possible modes of release. Environ. Int. 2003, 29, 683-689. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850087.
Andersson et al. 2006. P.L. Andersson, K. Öberg and U. Örn, Chemical characterization of brominated flame retardants and identification of structurally representative compounds, Environ Toxicol Chem 25 (2006), pp. 1275–1282. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16704058.
Antignac, JR, Cariou R, Maume D et al. 2008. Exposure assessment of fetus and newborn to brominated flame retardants in France: preliminary data. Mol Nutr Food Res 52:258-265
Babich, M. A. 2006. CPSC Staff Preliminary Risk Assessment of Flame Retardant (FR) Chemicals in Upholstered Furniture Foam. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2006, pp 1–129. http://www.cpsc.gov/library/foia/foia07/brief/ufurn2.pdf.
Bearr JS, Stapleton HM, Mitchelmore CL. Accumulation and DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 2 brominated flame-retardant mixtures, Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54. Environ Toxicol Chem 2010;29:722-9.
Brooke DN et al. 2009. Environmental risk evaluation report: Isopropylated triphenyl phosphate (CAS nos. 28108-99-8, 26967-76-0 & 68937-41-7), product code SCHO0809BQUG-E-E. H United Kingdom Environment Agency. http://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/PDF/SCHO0809BQUG-E-E.pdf.
Bruchajzer et al. 2004. Effect of repeated administration of hexabromobenzene and 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene on the levels of selected cytochromes in rat liver. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 17:347-53.
Cai, 2008 Y.Y. Cai, Current major brominated flame retardants, Hand book of Modern Technology of Flame Retardarce (2008).
Carlton BD et al. Examination of the Reproductive Effects of Tricresyl Phosphate Administered to Long-Evans Rats. Toxicology 46: 321-8 (1987). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3672537?dopt=Abstract.
CEFIC. 2007. European Chemical Industry Council. http://www.cefic-efra.com/images/stories/factsheet/EFRATBBPAFactSheet1106-1_00.pdf.
ChemSigma International Co., Ltd. 2001. Hexabromobenzene. http://www.chemsigma.com/chem/87-82-1.html
CIREEH, 2011. New and Alternative Flame Retardants. Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Environmental Exposures and Health. http://www.cireeh.org/pmwiki.php/Main/FF550
CPSC. 2006. CPSC Staff Preliminary Risk Assessment of Flame Retardant (FR) Chemicals in Upholstered Furniture Foam. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. http://www.cpsc.gov/library/foia/foia07/brief/ufurn2.pdf. Accessed July 8, 2011.
Danish Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Brominated Flame Retardants: Substance Flow Analysis and Assessment of Alternatives, Environmental Project no. 494 1999. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.statensnet.dk/pligtarkiv/fremvis.pl?vaerkid=3548&reprid=0&filid=0&iarkiv=1.
Danish EPA. 2007. Deca-BDE and Alternatives in Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www2.mst.dk/common/Udgivramme/Frame.asp?http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2007/978-87-7052-349-3/html/default_eng.htm.
DeWit and Muir. 2010. The 2010 AMAP Assessment of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Circumpolar Arctic: An Overview of Conclusions and Recommendations. http://www.amap.no/documents/doc/amap-assessment-2009-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-the-arctic/45.
ECHA. 2011. Chemicals/REACH: six dangerous substances to be phased out by the EU. European Chemicals Agency. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/11/196&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
EFRA. 2006. Flame retardant fact sheet: Arylphosphates. European Flame Retardants Association. http://www.cefic-efra.com/images/stories/factsheet/3ArylphosphatesFactSheetAB-1_00.pdf.
EFRA. 2006. Flame Retardants Fact Sheet: Zinc Borate. European Flame Retardants Association. January 2006. http://www.acima.asn.au/downlights/fire/ZincBorateFactsheet.pdf.
EPA. 2008. Final Integrated Risk Information System Assessment for Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/iris/subst/0035.htm
ESIS. 2008. Risk Assessment: Hexabromocyclododecane (25637-99-4) (May 2008). European Commission, European chemical Substances Information System. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://esis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/doc/existing-chemicals/risk_assessment/REPORT/hbcddreport044.pdf.
European Community. 2008. Communication from the Commission on the results of the risk evaluation and the risk reduction strategies for the substances: sodium chromate, sodium dichromate and 2,2',6,6'-tetrabromo-4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (tetrabromobisphenol A). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1400521237754&uri=CELEX:52008XC0618(02).
European Union. 2006. Council Directive 2006/102/EC. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/l_363/l_36320061220en02410343.pdf
Flick, E.W. 1989. Handbook of Adhesives Raw Materials. Second Edition. ISBN: 9780815511854
Food Safety Authority of Ireland. 2010. Investigation into Levels of Chlorinated and Brominated Organic Pollutants in Carcass Fat, Offal, Egg and Milk Produced in Ireland. Retrieved on 8/13/2011 from www.fsai.ie/chlorinatedandbrominatedorganicpollutantsinireland.html
Frederiksen, M.; Vorkamp, K.; Thomsen, M.; Knudsen, L. E. 2009. Human internal and external exposure to PBDE-a review of levels and sources. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 2009, 212, 109– 134.
Hamers et al. (2006). In vitro profiling of the endocrine-disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants toxicology. Toxicol. Sci 92:157-173. http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/1/157.full.pdf.
Hengde Chemical. 2006. Products: Decabromodiphenyl Ethane. http://www.hdflam.com/proe_16.html.
HSDB. 2003. Tricresyl Phosphate. Hazardous Substances Data Bank, U.S. National Library of Medicine. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+1330-78-5.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1989. Antimony trioxide and antimony trisulfide. Internet address: http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol47/47-11.html.
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Report on Alternatives to the Flame Retardant DecaBDE: Evaluation of Toxicity, Availability, Affordability, and Fire Safety Issues (A Report to the Governor and the General Assembly). Available: http://www.epa.state.il.us/reports/decabde-study/decabde-alternatives.pdf.
IPCS. 1991. Triphenyl Phosphate, Environmental Health Criteria 111. World Health Organization International Programme On Chemical Safety. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc111.htm.
IPCS. 1995. Tetrabromobisphenol A and Derivatives, Environmental Health Criteria 172. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Retrieved from http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc172.htm.
IPCS. 1997. Flame Retardants: A General Introduction, Environmental Health Criteria 192. World Health Organization International Programme On Chemical Safety. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc192.htm.
Israeli Chemicals Ltd. 2011. http://www.icl-group.com/iclgroup/Pages/IndustrialProducts.aspx
Karlsson M, Julander A, van Bavel B, Hardell L. (2007); Environ Int. 33: 62-69
KEMI. 2005. Information on substances: Antimony trioxide. http://apps.kemi.se/flodessok/floden/kemamne_eng/antimon_eng.htm.
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La Guardia, M. J.; Hale, R. C.; Harvey, E. 2006. Detailed polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener composition of the widely used penta-, octa-, and deca-PBDE technical flame-retardant mixtures Environ. Sci. Technol. 40. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es060630m.
Lowell Center for Sustainable Production. 2005. Decabromodiphenylether: an investigation of non-halogen substitutes in electronic enclosures and textile applications. http://www.sustainableproduction.org/downloads/DecaBDESubstitutesFinal4-15-05.pdf
Luo XJ, Zhang JL, Wu JP, Luo Y, Chen SJ, Mai BX, Yang ZY (2009); Environ Sci Technol. 43: 306-311.
Meeker, J. D.; Stapleton, H. M. House Dust Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Relation to Hormone Levels and Semen Quality Parameters Environ. Health Perspect. Mar 2010, 118 (3) 318– 323. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854757/.
Moeller, A.; Xie, Z.; Sturm, R.; Ebinghaus, R. 2011. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame-retardants in air and seawater of the European Arctic. http://www.schulprojekt-klimawandel.de/imperia/md/content/gkss/zentrale_einrichtungen/bibliothek/journals/2011/Moeller-envpoll.pdf.
Morose. 2006. An overview of alternatives to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell. Available from http://www.sustainableproduction.org/downloads/AternativestoTBBPAandHBCD.pdf.
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Nakari, T. and Huhtala, S. (2010), In vivo and in vitro toxicity of decabromodiphenyl ethane, a flame retardant. Environmental Toxicology, 2010 Aug;25(4): 333–338. doi: 10.1002/tox.20499. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19449387.
National Research Council. 2000. Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9841.
New Materials International. 2003. Great lakes to cease production of penta PBDE flame retardant by end 2004 (20 November 2003). http://www.newmaterials.com/News_Detail_Great_lakes_to_cease_production_of_penta-pdbe_flame_retardant_by_end_2004__484.asp#axzz2wLp9aKmT.
Ni, Y., Kumagai, K., & Yanagisawa, Y. (2007). Measuring emissions of organophosphate flame retardants using a passive flux sampler. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 3235–3240.
NICNAS. 1999. FR-370/FR-372 Full Public Report. National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. Camperdown, NSW, Australia. http://www.nicnas.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/9442/NA672FR.pdf.
NILU. 2008. Current state of knowledge and monitoring requirements - Emerging "new" brominated flame-retardants in flame retarded products and the environment (TA-2462/2008). Norwegian Institute for Air Research. Retrieved from http://www.nilu.no/DesktopModules/NiluWeb.UserControls/Resources/File.ashx?filename=16-2009-mih.pdf&filetype=file.
NRC. 2000. Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals. National Research Council. Retrieved from http://download.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9841.
NTP. 2005. Brief Toxicological Summary for Antimony Trioxide. National Toxicology Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPdf/Antimonytrioxide_508.pdf.
OECD. 1998. Diphenyl cresyl phosphate. SIDS assessment report. http://www.inchem.org/documents/sids/sids/26444495.pdf.
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OEHHA. 2008. Brominated and Chlorinated Organic Chemical Compounds Used As Flame Retardants: Materials for the December 4-5, 2008 Meeting of the California Environmental Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (CECBP) Scientific Guidance Panel (SGP). http://oehha.ca.gov/multimedia/biomon/pdf/120408flamedoc.pdf.
OEHHA. 2009. Brominated and Chlorinated Organic Chemical Compounds Used As Flame Retardants: Additional Information on Four Flame Retardants. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. http://oehha.ca.gov/multimedia/biomon/pdf/FlameRetardants_FourMore.pdf.
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